Fourth-party logistics – A 4PL differs from third-party logistics in the following ways: (1) 4PL organization is often a separate entity established as a joint venture or long-term contract between a primary client and one or more partners; (2) 4PL organization acts as a single interface between the client and multiple logistics service providers; (3) All aspects (ideally) of the client’s supply chain are managed by the 4PL organization; (4) It is possible for a major third party logistics provider to form a 4PL organization within its existing structure (Strategic Supply Chain Alignment; John Gattorna).